Chandra Prakash, Raman Sharma, Michelle Gleave and Angus Nedderman Pages 952 - 964 ( 13 )
Drug induced toxicity remains one of the major reasons for failures of new pharmaceuticals, and for the withdrawal of approved drugs from the market. Efforts are being made to reduce attrition of drug candidates, and to minimize their bioactivation potential in the early stages of drug discovery in order to bring safer compounds to the market. Therefore, in addition to potency and selectivity; drug candidates are now selected on the basis of acceptable metabolism/toxicology profiles in preclinical species. To support this, new approaches have been developed, which include extensive in vitro methods using human and animal hepatic cellular and subcellular systems, recombinant human drug metabolizing enzymes, increased automation for higher-throughput screens, sensitive analytical technologies and in silico computational models to assess the metabolism aspects of the new chemical entities. By using these approaches many compounds that might have serious adverse reactions associated with them are effectively eliminated before reaching clinical trials, however some toxicities such as those caused by idiosyncratic responses, are not detected until a drug is in late stages of clinical trials or has become available to the market. One of the proposed mechanisms for the development of idiosyncratic drug toxicity is the bioactivation of drugs to form reactive metabolites by drug metabolizing enzymes. This review discusses the different approaches to, and benefits of using existing in vitro techniques, for the detection of reactive intermediates in order to minimize bioactivation potential in drug discovery.
Adverse drug reactions, idiosyncratic response, bioactivation, reactive intermediates, trapping agents, mass spectrometry, in vitro, covalent binding
Drug metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, Biogen Idec, 14 Cambridge Center Cambridge, MA 02142, USA.