Esther G. van de Kerkhof, Inge A.M. de Graaf and Geny M.M. Groothuis Pages 658 - 675 ( 18 )
Although the liver has long been thought to play the major role in drug metabolism, also the metabolic capacity of the intestine is more and more recognized. In vivo studies eventually pointed out not only the significance of first-pass metabolism by the intestinal wall for the bioavailability of several compounds, but also the relevance of transporters in this process. Only a few methods are available to study drug metabolism in vivo or in situ and with most of these methods it remains difficult to discriminate between the contribution of liver and extrahepatic tissues. To study intestinal drug metabolism in vitro, apart from subcellular fractions, several intact cell systems are nowadays available. This review discusses the available intestinal in vitro methods to study drug metabolism. The advantages and limitations of intact cell systems (isolated intestinal perfusion, everted sac, Ussing chamber preparations, biopsies, precision-cut slices, primary cells), subcellular fractions (S9 fractions, microsomes) and intestinal cell lines (caco-2, LS180 cells amongst others) are discussed. Their applicability to different species and to study phase I and II metabolism/transport and drug-drug interactions are summarized. Furthermore, causes of variation within and between methods are discussed and metabolic rates obtained with different methods are compared. Whereas subcellular fractions and cell lines are efficient methods to study mechanistic aspects of drug metabolism at the enzyme level, the isolated intestinal perfusion, everted sac and Ussing chamber appear particularly useful for studying drug metabolism of rapidly metabolised drugs and interactions with transporters. Biopsies, precision-cut slices and primary cells seem all appropriate to study induction and metabolism of slowly metabolised drugs.
In vitro methods, intestine, colon, metabolism, induction
Department of Pharmacokinetics&Drug Delivery, A. Deusinglaan 1, 9713 AV Groningen, The Netherlands.