Yuewu Xie, Huixiang Liu, Xiaoyue Chen and Jie Xing* Pages 1 - 9 ( 9 )
Background: Fixed-dose combination of artemisinin and naphthoquine (NQ) is a new artemisinin-based combination therapy for the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum. NQ absorption has been reported to be affected by food in human.
Objectives: The effect of gastric pH on NQ pharmacokinetics and antiplasmodial activity was investigated. Method: The pharmacokinetic profiles of NQ were studied in healthy rodents after an oral dose of NQ with or without gastric pH modulators, i.e., pentagastrin (stimulator) and famotidine (suppressant). The effect of gastric pH on NQ exposures in human was predicted using a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model. The effect of gastric pH on the antiplasmodial activity of NQ was evaluated in mice infected with Plasmodium yoelii.
Results: Neither pentagastrin nor famotidine affected NQ absorption (AUC0-t and Cmax) significantly (P > 0.05) in rodents. The predicted PK profiles of NQ in human did not show an effect of gastric pH. Compared to pure NQ (ED90, 1.2 mg/kg), the combination with pentagastrin showed non-significantly (< 1.5-fold) higher antimalarial potency (ED90, 1.1 mg/kg). Correspondingly, elevation of gastric pH (up to pH 5) by famotidine treatment resulted in a relatively weaker antimalarial potency for NQ (ED90, 1.4 mg/kg). Such a difference is within the acceptable range of variability in NQ pharmacokinetics and antiplasmodial activity.
Conclusions: Although food was found to significantly impact on NQ pharmacokinetics, other factors except for gastric pH should account for the result, and the warning of careful use of NQ in patients with acid-related disease is not expected to be clinical meaningful.
Naphthoquine, gastric pH, pharmacokinetics, antiplasmodial activity, Plasmodium yoelii, PBPK model
School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shandong University, Jinan, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shandong University, Jinan, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shandong University, Jinan, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shandong University, Jinan