Chandrasai Potla Durthi*, Madhuri Pola, Satish Babu Rajulapati* and Anand Kishore Kola Pages 211 - 220 ( 10 )
Aim and Objective: To review the applications and production studies of reported antileukemic drug L-glutaminase under Solid-state Fermentation (SSF).
Overview: An amidohydrolase that gained economic importance because of its wide range of applications in the pharmaceutical industry, as well as the food industry, is L-glutaminase. The medical applications utilized it as an anti-tumor agent as well as an antiretroviral agent. L-glutaminase is employed in the food industry as an acrylamide degradation agent, as a flavor enhancer and for the synthesis of theanine. Another application includes its use in hybridoma technology as a biosensing agent. Because of its diverse applications, scientists are now focusing on enhancing the production and optimization of L-glutaminase from various sources by both Solid-state Fermentation (SSF) and submerged fermentation studies. Of both types of fermentation processes, SSF has gained importance because of its minimal cost and energy requirement. L-glutaminase can be produced by SSF from both bacteria and fungi. Single-factor studies, as well as multi-level optimization studies, were employed to enhance L-glutaminase production. It was concluded that L-glutaminase activity achieved by SSF was 1690 U/g using wheat bran and Bengal gram husk by applying feed-forward artificial neural network and genetic algorithm. The highest L-glutaminase activity achieved under SSF was 3300 U/gds from Bacillus sp., by mixture design. Purification and kinetics studies were also reported to find the molecular weight as well as the stability of L-glutaminase.
Conclusion: The current review is focused on the production of L-glutaminase by SSF from both bacteria and fungi. It was concluded from reported literature that optimization studies enhanced L-glutaminase production. Researchers have also confirmed antileukemic and anti-tumor properties of the purified L-glutaminase on various cell lines.
L-glutaminase, solid state fermentation, antileukemic, anti-tumor, production, optimization, kinetics, in silico studies, cytotoxic studies, mixture design, genetic algorithm, neural network.
Department of Biotechnology, National Institute of Technology, Warangal, Telangana 506004, Department of Biotechnology, National Institute of Technology, Warangal, Telangana 506004, Department of Biotechnology, National Institute of Technology, Warangal, Telangana 506004, Department of Chemical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Warangal, Telangana 506004