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Decoding Novel Mechanisms and Emerging Therapeutic Strategies in Breast Cancer Resistance

[ Vol. 21 , Issue. 3 ]

Author(s):

Sadat Shafi, Sana Khan, Farazul Hoda, Faizana Fayaz, Archu Singh, Mohammad Ahmed Khan*, Ruhi Ali, Faheem Hyder Pottoo, Sana Tariq and Abul Kalam Najmi   Pages 199 - 210 ( 12 )

Abstract:


Breast cancer (BC), an intricate and highly heterogeneous disorder, has presently afflicted 2.09 million females globally. Chemoresistance remains a paramount challenge in the treatment of BC. Owing to its assorted nature, the chemoresistant mechanisms of BC still need intensive research. Accumulating evidence suggests that abnormalities related to the biogenesis of cancer stem cells (CSCs) and microRNAs (miRNAs) are associated with BC progression and chemoresistance. The presently available interventions are inadequate to target chemoresistance, therefore more efficient alternatives are urgently needed to improvise existing therapeutic regimens. A myriad of strategies is being explored, such as immunotherapy, gene therapy, and combination treatment to surmount chemoresistance. Additionally, nanoparticles as chemotherapeutic carriers put forward the options to encapsulate numerous drugs, alone as well as in combination for cancer theranostics. This review summarizes the chemoresistance mechanisms of miRNAs and CSCs as well as the most recently documented therapeutic approaches for the treatment of chemoresistance in BC. By unraveling the underpinning mechanism of BC chemoresistance, researchers could possibly develop more efficient treatment strategies towards BC.

Keywords:

Breast cancer, chemoresistance, cancer stem cells, nanoparticles, immunotherapy, microRNAs.

Affiliation:

Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi 110062, Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi 110062, Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi 110062, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Delhi Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, Sector-3, MB Road, Pushp Vihar, New Delhi 110017, Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi 110062, Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi 110062, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Delhi Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, Sector-3, MB Road, Pushp Vihar, New Delhi 110017, Department of Pharmacology, College of Clinical Pharmacy, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam 31441, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Delhi Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, Sector-3, MB Road, Pushp Vihar, New Delhi 110017, Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi 110062

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