Ana F. Antunes, Paula Pereira, Claudia Reis, Patrícia Rijo and Catarina Reis* Pages 412 - 425 ( 14 )
Background: Skin delivery is an exciting and challenging area. There are numerous skin delivery systems available on the market. However, this market still remains limited to a narrow range of substances. Thus, several strategies have been developed to improve the performance of those substances, including the development of nanosystems.Methods: The aim of this review is to elucidate the nanosystems applied to the skin. Thus, we undertook a structured search of bibliographic databases for peer-reviewed research literature. In order to contextualize this subject, anatomy and physiology of the skin will be first briefly described and then general concepts and the various examples of these nanosystems, both cosmetic and pharmaceutical field, will be also accessed. Results: As demonstrated, the use of nanosized carrier systems for drugs or active ingredients has gathered the attention of the most famous cosmetic and pharma industries. In fact, those nanosystems can easily establish a special interaction with skin structures, achieving deeper layers and obtaining a controlled release of the encapsulated substances. Conclusion: The findings of this review confirm the importance of skin delivery and the applications of nanotechnology in this area. Although those nanosystems have a high potential and applicability, there are still some limitations mainly because some of those studies are inconclusive in terms of risk of the nanomaterials and further toxicological investigations could address those issues in order to make these products more functional and attractive to consumers.
Skin, nanotechnology, lipidic-based nanosystems, polymeric-based nanoparticles, fullerenes, drugs, cosmetics.
Universidade Lusófona de Humanidades e Tecnologias, Campo Grande 376, 1749-024 Lisboa, CBios - Research Center for Biosciences & Health Technologies, Universidade Lusófona de Humanidades e Tecnologias, Campo Grande 376, 1749-024 Lisboa, Centro Hospitalar de Trás-os-montes e Alto Douro, iMed.ULisboa, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto, 1649-003 Lisboa, Faculdade de Farmácia/iMed- Ulisboa, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto, 1649-003 Lisboa