Reema Savaliya, Darshini Shah, Ragini Singh, Ashutosh Kumar, Rishi Shanker, Alok Dhawan and Sanjay Singh Pages 645 - 661 ( 17 )
Currently the major research highlights of bioengineering and medical technology are directed towards development of improved diagnostic techniques to screen complex diseases. Screening requirements are to identify the cause of illnesses, monitor improvement or progression of the state of diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular or neurodegenerative diseases. Nanotechnology enables the manipulation of materials at nanoscale and has shown potential to enhance sensitivity, selectivity and lower the cost of a diagnosis. The causative biomolecules (DNA, proteins) can be detected by red-shifted absorbance of gold nanoparticles or alteration in the conductance of a nanowire or nanotubes, and deflection of a micro or nano-cantilever. Several types of nanomaterials such as metals, metal-oxides and quantum dots have shown ample advantages over traditional diagnosis, intracellular labeling and visualization of target cells/tissues. Nanotechnology has also opened several avenues which could be further developed to enable enhanced visualization of tissues, cells, DNA and proteins over a point-of-care device. Protein or gene chips created using nanomaterials could further be integrated into a convenient nano-fluidic device for better disease diagnosis.
Biomarkers, nanomaterials, POC, biosensors.
Institute of Life Sciences, School of Science and Technology, Ahmedabad University, University Road, Ahmedabad-380009, Gujarat, India.