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Role of Graphene Nano-Composites in Cancer Therapy: Theranostic Applications, Metabolic Fate and Toxicity Issues

[ Vol. 16 , Issue. 5 ]

Author(s):

Mahfoozur Rahman, Mohammad Zaki Ahmad, Javed Ahmad, Jamia Firdous, Farhan Jalees Ahmad, Gohar Mushtaq, Mohammad A. Kamal and Sohail Akhter   Pages 397 - 409 ( 13 )

Abstract:


Graphene and its modified nano-composites have gained much attention in recent times in cancer therapy as nanotheranostics due to low production cost, ease in synthesis and physicochemical properties (ultra-large surface area with planar structure and π-π conjugation with the unsaturated and aromatic drugs/biomolecules) being favorable for multiple payloads and drug targeting. Yet, graphene nano-composites are a relatively new and rapid development. The adoption of graphene nano-composites in cancer nanobiomedicine research raises questions about in vivo metabolism and disposition as well as biological interaction and safety profile of these nano-particles. Limited in-vitro and in-vivo findings are available in literature, indicating the inconsistencies about the factors affecting in-vivo bio-interaction and toxicity. Presently, there is a lack of anticipated biodistribution and toxicity pattern of graphene. It appears that surface functionalization, biocompatible coating, and size are the key factors in determining the metabolic fate of graphene nano-composites. In-vitro and in-vivo toxicity data suggests that graphene nano-composites exhibit dose and size dependent toxicity. This review summarizes up-to-date research outcome of this promising inorganic nanomaterial for cancer therapy. Moreover, the metabolic fate and toxicity issues of graphene and its nano-composites shall also be discussed in detail.

Keywords:

Biodistribution and excretion, cancer therapy, disposition, graphene, graphene oxide, inorganic nanoparticles, metabolism, nanomedicine, theranostics.

Affiliation:

Department of Pharmaceutics, Utrecht Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Utrecht University, Universiteitsweg 99, 3584 CG, Utrecht, The Netherlands.



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