E. Srinivas, J. N. Murthy, A. R. R. Rao and G. N. Sastry Pages 205 - 217 ( 13 )
Phospho-glycoprotein (P-gp) is an efflux transporter expressed in many organs (ex: kidney, lung, liver and spleen) and in hormone producing or responsive tissues (ex: adrenal cortex, testis and placenta). It is involved in many important physiological functions. Among them the major one is extrusion of xenobiotics in order to detoxify the cells. This property of P-gp is associated with multidrug resistance (MDR) for many pathological conditions. While the experimental determination of three-dimensional structure is not yet successful, the transmembrane (TM) 5, 6, 11 and 12 are sensitive to mutations and contain substrate binding sites. Designing of potential and selective inhibitors of P-gp is still hampered by a lack of information upon the three dimensional structure of P-gp. The design of P-gp inhibitors was traditionally driven by quantitative structure activity relationship studies, which is complicated by factors such as different types of assays, multiple drug binding sites and diverse chemical structures. Clearly a conclusive and predictive SAR does not seem to be practical, despite progress in the last few years towards more specific SAR suggesting well defined structural features responsible for activity. Advances made recently in solving the crystal structure of prokaryotic ATP binding cassette proteins (ABC) transporters, Ec-MsbA, Vc-MsbA and BtuCD yielded suitable templates for construction of homology models of P-gp. Few molecular dynamics (MD) simulations aimed at elucidating the functional dynamics of ABC transporters have provided useful insights to their mechanism and structure. The present review aims at the general overview of importance, expression, structure, organization and drug binding sites of P-gp. This review also highlights recent developments in the homology modeling, molecular dynamics simulations of P-gp and progress in QSAR, pharmacophore modeling of P-gp modulators.
P-glycoprotein, Transmembrane proteins, Homology modeling, QSAR studies, Molecular descriptors
Molecular Modeling Group,Organic Chemical Sciences, Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, Tarnaka,Hyderabad 500 007, India.