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Thymoquinone Lipid Nanoparticles Cut the Gordian Knots of Depression via Neuroprotective BDNF and Downregulation of Neuro-inflammatory NF-κB, IL-6, and TNF-α in LPS Treated Rats

Author(s):

Mahtab Alam, Md Noushad Javed*, Abul Kalam Najmi, Farhan Jalees Ahmad, Syed Sarim Imam and Mohd Akhtar*   Pages 1 - 11 ( 11 )

Abstract:


Background: In over 300 million clinical cases, antidepressant drugs seem to provide only symptomatic relief and limited protection in life-threatening depressive events.

Objective: To compare neuronal-signaling mechanism and neuroprotective roles of Thymoquinone (TQ) suspension and its SLN (TQSLN) against standard antidepressant drug fluoxetine.

Methods: This research investigated in-silico docking at NF-KB p50 active site, CLSM based gut permeation, screening of antidepressant activities and neurosignaling pathways involved.

Results: As compared to fluoxetine, TQ reporteda significantly better docking score (-6.83 v/s -6.22) and a better lower free binding energy of (-34.715 Kcal/mol v/s -28.537 Kcal/mol). While poorly oral bioavailable and P-gp substrate TQ reported approximately 250% higher gut permeation if delivered as TQSLN formulation. In locomotor studies, as compared to TQS, TQSLN favored more prominent (p< 0.010) elevation in average time, horizontalactivity, average-velocity, and total-movement with reduced rest time LPS treated groups. However, in the tail suspension test, TQSLN significantly reduced immobility time (p<0.010). Similarly, In the modified force swimming test, TQSLN also significantly reduced immobility time (p<0.010), but swimming time (p<0.010) and climbing time (p<0.050) were significantly elevated. Subsequently, TQSLN reported significantly elevated neuroprotective BDNF (p<0.010) as well as hippocampal 5HT/TRP; accompanied with reduced levels of hippocampal inflammatory markers TNF-α (p<0.001) and IL-6 (p<0.010) as well as lower kynurenine and tryptophan ratio (KYN/TRP). Similarly, the hippocampal CA1 region further revealed TQSL more predominantly attenuated NF-kB nuclear translocation in the brain.

Conclusion: Despite the poor bioavailability of TQ, TQSLN potentially attenuates neuroinflammatory transmitters and favors BDNF to modulate depressive neurobehavioral states.

Keywords:

Depression, neuroinflammation, nanoparticles, herbal drugs, neuronal disorders, drug delivery, docking, histopathology, thymoquinone.

Affiliation:

Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi, 110062, Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi, 110062, Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi, 110062, Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi, 110062, Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh, Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi, 110062



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