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Tumor Angiogenesis and VEGFR-2: Mechanism, Pathways and Current Biological Therapeutic Interventions


Altaf Ahmad Shah, Mohammad A Kamal and Salman Akhtar*   Pages 1 - 10 ( 10 )


Background: Angiogenesis, involving the formation of new blood vessels from the preexisting vessels caters an important biological phenomenon for the growth and development of bodily structures in human body. Regulation of angiogenesis in non-pathological conditions proceeds through a well-defined balanced angiogenic-switch, which in exposure to various pathological conditions may get altered. This result the cells to change its normal behavior resulting in uncontrolled division and angiogenesis.

Methods: The current review tries to picture out a brief framework of angiogenesis and tumor progression phenomenon along with the latest therapeutic interventions against VEGFR-2 and its future directions.

Results: The tumor angiogenic pathways functioning in diverse mechanisms via Sprouting angiogenesis, Intussusceptive angiogenesis, Vascular Co-option, Vascular Mimicry, Glomeruloid angiogenesis are normally activated by varied angiogenic stimulators and their receptors intertwined to give rise to specialized signaling pathways. Amongst these receptors, VEGFR-2 turns up as one of the key and critical mediator in tumor angiogenesis and is seen as a major therapeutic target for combating angiogenesis phenomenon. Though, a number of anti-angiogenic drugs like Ramucirumab, Sunitinib, Axitinib, Sorafenib, etc. showing good survival rate have been developed and FDA approved against VEGFR-2 but these have also been found to be associated with serious health effects and adverse reactions.

Conclusions: An improved or alternative treatment is needed shortly that would have a higher survival rate with least side effects. Innovative strategies including personalized medicine, Nano-medicine, cancer immunotherapy have also been outlined as an alternative treatment therapy with discussion about needed advancements and improvements in their implementation methods.


Tumor Angiogenesis, Receptor tyrosine kinases, VEGFR-2, Personalized medicine, Nano-medicine, Sprouting angiogenesis.


Department of Biosciences, Integral University, Lucknow - 226026, UP, KingFahad Medical Research Center, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Department of Bioengineering, Faculty of Engineering, Integral University, Lucknow - 226026, UP

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