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The Current State of Potential Therapeutic Modalities for Glioblastoma Multiforme: A Clinical Review

[ Vol. 21 , Issue. 8 ]

Author(s):

Elmira Mohtashami, Negar Shafaei-Bajestani, Hamid Mollazadeh, Seyed Hadi Mousavi, Mohammad Jalili-Nik, Amirhossein Sahebkar* and Amir R. Afshari*   Pages 564 - 578 ( 15 )

Abstract:


Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), as the most lethal brain tumor, continues to be incurable. Considering the high mortality rate of GBM, it is crucial to develop new treatment approaches. Conventional therapies, including maximal surgical resection, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy (typically temozolomide), have not led to significant changes in the survival rates of GBM patients. However, emerging modalities, such as the use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors, mTOR inhibitors, NF-κB modulators, nitrosoureas, and immunotherapeutic agents have shown promising in improving GBM outcomes. In this context, we reviewed the current status of GBM treatment, the efficacy of existing standard therapies in improving disease outcomes, and future therapeutic directions.

Keywords:

Glioblastoma multiforme, tyrosine kinase inhibitor, mTOR inhibitor, NF-κB modulator, immunotherapy, nitrosoureas.

Affiliation:

Pharmacological Research Center of Medicinal Plants, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Department of Basic Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Gonabad University of Medical Sciences, Gonabad, Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, North Khorasan University of Medical Sciences, Bojnurd, Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Department of Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Halal Research Center of IRI, FDA, Tehran, Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, North Khorasan University of Medical Sciences, Bojnurd

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