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A Change in Bile Flow: Looking Beyond Transporter Inhibition in the Development of Drug-induced Cholestasis

[ Vol. 20 , Issue. 8 ]

Author(s):

Brandy Garzel, Lei Zhang, Shiew-Mei Huang and Hongbing Wang*   Pages 621 - 632 ( 12 )

Abstract:


Background: Drug-induced Liver Injury (DILI) has received increasing attention over the past decades, as it represents the leading cause of drug failure and attrition. One of the most prevalent and severe forms of DILI involves the toxic accumulation of bile acids in the liver, known as Drug-induced Cholestasis (DIC). Traditionally, DIC is studied by exploring the inhibition of hepatic transporters such as Bile Salt Export Pump (BSEP) and multidrug resistance-associated proteins, predominantly through vesicular transport assays. Although this approach has identified numerous drugs that alter bile flow, many DIC drugs do not demonstrate prototypical transporter inhibition, but rather are associated with alternative mechanisms.

Methods: We undertook a focused literature search on DIC and biliary transporters and analyzed peer-reviewed publications over the past two decades or so.

Results: We have summarized the current perception regarding DIC, biliary transporters, and transcriptional regulation of bile acid homeostasis. A growing body of literature aimed to identify alternative mechanisms in the development of DIC has been evaluated. This review also highlights current in vitro approaches used for prediction of DIC.

Conclusion: Efforts have continued to focus on BSEP, as it is the primary route for hepatic biliary clearance. In addition to inhibition, drug-induced BSEP repression or the combination of these two has emerged as important alternative mechanisms leading to DIC. Furthermore, there has been an evolution in the approaches to studying DIC including 3D cell cultures and computational modeling.

Keywords:

Bile salt export pump (BSEP), Drug-induced liver injury (DILI), Drug-induced cholestasis (DIC), inhibition, repression, farnesoid X receptor.

Affiliation:

Office of Clinical Pharmacology, Office of Translational Sciences, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Silver Spring, MD 20993, USA; 2Becton Dickinson, 54 Loveton Circle, Sparks, MD 21152, Office of Clinical Pharmacology, Office of Translational Sciences, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Silver Spring, MD 20993, USA; 2Becton Dickinson, 54 Loveton Circle, Sparks, MD 21152, Office of Clinical Pharmacology, Office of Translational Sciences, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Silver Spring, MD 20993, USA; 2Becton Dickinson, 54 Loveton Circle, Sparks, MD 21152, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Maryland School of Pharmacy, Baltimore, MD 21201



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