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Impact of Drug Metabolism/Pharmacokinetics and their Relevance Upon Traditional Medicine-based Cardiovascular Drug Research

[ Vol. 20 , Issue. 7 ]


Da-Cheng Hao* and Pei-gen Xiao   Pages 556 - 574 ( 19 )


Background: The representative cardiovascular herbs, i.e. Panax, Ligusticum, Carthamus, and Pueraria plants, are traditionally and globally used in the prevention and treatment of various cardiovascular diseases. Modern phytochemical studies have found many medicinal compounds from these plants, and their unique pharmacological activities are being revealed. However, there are few reviews that systematically summarize the current trends of Drug Metabolism/Pharmacokinetic (DMPK) investigations of cardiovascular herbs.

Methods: Here, the latest understanding, as well as the knowledge gaps of the DMPK issues in drug development and clinical usage of cardiovascular herbal compounds, was highlighted.

Results: The complicated herb-herb interactions of cardiovascular Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) herb pair/formula significantly impact the PK/pharmacodynamic performance of compounds thereof, which may inspire researchers to develop a novel herbal formula for the optimized outcome of different cardiovascular diseases. While the Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Excretion and Toxicity (ADME/T) of some compounds has been deciphered, DMPK studies should be extended to more cardiovascular compounds of different medicinal parts, species (including animals), and formulations, and could be streamlined by versatile omics platforms and computational analyses.

Conclusion: In the context of systems pharmacology, the DMPK knowledge base is expected to translate bench findings to clinical applications, as well as foster cardiovascular drug discovery and development.


Traditional medicine, cardiovascular, drug metabolism, pharmacokinetics, drug development, Panax, Apiaceae, Carthamus.


Biotechnology Institute, School of Environment and Chemical Engineering, Dalian Jiaotong University, Dalian 116028, Institute of Medicinal Plant Development, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing 100193

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