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Removal of Pharmaceutical Contaminants in Wastewater Using Nanomaterials: A Comprehensive Review

[ Vol. 20 , Issue. 6 ]

Author(s):

Anjali Chauhan, Devendra Sillu and Shekhar Agnihotri*   Pages 483 - 505 ( 23 )

Abstract:


Background: The limitless presence of pharmaceutical contaminants in discharged wastewater has emerged as a threat to aquatic species and humans. Their presence in drinking water has although raised substantial concerns, very little is known about the fate and ecological impacts of these pollutants. As a result, these pollutants are inevitably introduced to our food chain at trace concentrations. Unfortunately, the conventional wastewater treatment techniques are unable to treat pharmaceuticals completely with practical limitations. The focus has now been shifted towards nanotechnology for the successful remediation of these persistent pollutants. Thus, the current review specifically focuses on providing readers brief yet sharp insights into applications of various nanomaterials for the removal of pharmaceutical contaminants.

Methods: An exhaustive collection of bibliographic database was done with articles having high impact and citations in relevant research domains. An in-depth analysis of screened papers was done through standard tools. Studies were categorized according to the use of nanoscale materials as nano-adsorbents (graphene, carbon nanotubes), nanophotocatalysts (metal, metal oxide), nano-filtration, and ozonation for promising alternative technologies for the efficient removal of recalcitrant contaminants.

Results: A total of 365 research articles were selected. The contemporary advancements in the field of nanomaterials for drinking and wastewater treatment have been thoroughly analyzed along with their future perspectives.

Conclusion: The recommendations provided in this article will be useful to adopt novel strategies for on-site removal of the emerging contaminants in pharmaceutical effluents and related industries.

Keywords:

Emerging pollutants, photocatalysis, nano adsorbents, immobilization, nanocomposites, carbon nanotubes, graphene.

Affiliation:

Department of Biotechnology, Thapar Institute of Engineering and Technology, Patiala-147004, Punjab, Department of Biotechnology, Thapar Institute of Engineering and Technology, Patiala-147004, Punjab, Department of Biotechnology, Thapar Institute of Engineering and Technology, Patiala-147004, Punjab

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