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Therapeutics and Immunoprophylaxis Against Noroviruses and Rotaviruses: The Past, Present, and Future

[ Vol. 19 , Issue. 3 ]

Author(s):

Souvik Ghosh*, Yashpal Singh Malik and Nobumichi Kobayashi   Pages 170 - 191 ( 22 )

Abstract:


Background: Noroviruses and rotaviruses are important viral etiologies of severe gastroenteritis. Noroviruses are the primary cause of nonbacterial diarrheal outbreaks in humans, whilst rotaviruses are a major cause of childhood diarrhea. Although both enteric pathogens substantially impact human health and economies, there are no approved drugs against noroviruses and rotaviruses so far. On the other hand, whilst the currently licensed rotavirus vaccines have been successfully implemented in over 100 countries, the most advanced norovirus vaccine has recently completed phase-I and II trials.

Methods: We performed a structured search of bibliographic databases for peer-reviewed research literature on advances in the fields of norovirus and rotavirus therapeutics and immunoprophylaxis.

Results: Technological advances coupled with a proper understanding of viral morphology and replication over the past decade has facilitated pioneering research on therapeutics and immunoprophylaxis against noroviruses and rotaviruses, with promising outcomes in human clinical trials of some of the drugs and vaccines. This review focuses on the various developments in the fields of norovirus and rotavirus therapeutics and immunoprophylaxis, such as potential antiviral drug molecules, passive immunotherapies (oral human immunoglobulins, egg yolk and bovine colostral antibodies, llama-derived nanobodies, and antibodies expressed in probiotics, plants, rice grains and insect larvae), immune system modulators, probiotics, phytochemicals and other biological substances such as bovine milk proteins, therapeutic nanoparticles, hydrogels and viscogens, conventional viral vaccines (live and inactivated whole virus vaccines), and genetically engineered viral vaccines (reassortant viral particles, virus-like particles (VLPs) and other subunit recombinant vaccines including multi-valent viral vaccines, edible plant vaccines, and encapsulated viral particles).

Conclusions: This review provides important insights into the various approaches to therapeutics and immunoprophylaxis against noroviruses and rotaviruses.

Keywords:

Gastroenteritis, norovirus, rotavirus, antiviral molecules, passive immunotherapy, other therapeutic approaches, vaccines.

Affiliation:

Department of Hygiene, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, Sapporo, Hokkaido, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar 243 122, Uttar Pradesh, Department of Hygiene, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, Sapporo, Hokkaido

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