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Brain Aging and Disorders of the Central Nervous System: Kynurenines and Drug Metabolism

[ Vol. 17 , Issue. 5 ]

Author(s):

Nóra Török, Zsófia Majláth, Ferenc Fülöp, József Toldi and László Vécsei   Pages 412 - 429 ( 18 )

Abstract:


Introduction: The kynurenine pathway includes several neuroactive compounds, including kynurenic acid, picolinic acid, 3-hydroxykynurenine and quinolinic acid. The enzymatic cascade of the kynurenine pathway is tightly connected with the immune system, and may provide a link between the immune system and neurotransmission.

Main Areas Covered: Alterations in this cascade are associated with neurodegenerative, neurocognitive, autoimmune and psychiatric disorders, such as Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, migraine or schizophrenia.

Highlights: This review highlights the alterations in this metabolic pathway in the physiological aging process and in different disorders. A survey is also presented of therapeutic possibilities of influencing this metabolic route, which can be achieved through the use of synthetic kynurenic acid analogues, enzyme inhibitors or even nanotechnology.

Keywords:

Aging, Alzheimer’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, glutamate excitotoxicity, Huntington’s disease, kynurenine pathway, migraine, multiple sclerosis, neurodegeneration, neuroprotection, Parkinson’s disease, picolinic acid, schizophrenia, Toxoplasma gondii.

Affiliation:

Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Szeged, 6 Semmelweis u., H-6725 Szeged, Hungary.



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